Politics

A: From 2012 to 2015, the gross domestic product has increased from MNT 9,003.9 billion (USD 4.5 billion) to MNT 13,526.6 billion (USD 6.8 billion).

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A: The rapid expansion of Mongolia’s economy and its relatively favorable attitude towards Foreign Direct Investment have led to the creation of a sizeable cosmopolitan expat community in Ulaanbaatar.

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A: Coal: 163.2 billion tons, Copper: 37 million tons, and Gold: 1,431 tons. At current prices, the gold alone would be worth 70 billion dollars.

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A: Its largely unexploited mineral wealth. There are approximately 6,000 known deposits of over 80 different minerals in the country, including coal, copper, and gold. Only 27% of Mongolia has been surveyed to a scale of 1:50,000.

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A: In 2015, 86.3% of Mongolia’s exports were sent to China, 5% to UK, and 1.9% to Russia.

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A: Currently, just under 50%.

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A: Mongolia’s extraordinarily harsh winters (‘Dzud’) are a major cause. There are three types of Dzud: Black, White and Ice. A ‘Black Dzud’ occurs after an exceptionally hot, dry summer, leaving low-lying grasses weak. This makes it difficult for herd animals to find fodder, and many starve. A ‘White Dzud’ from unusually heavy snowfall which prevents animals from reaching fodder. An ‘Ice Dzud’ is when freezing rain covers the ground, making grazing impossible. In 2009/2010 a Dzud killed an estimated 17% of all of Mongolia’s livestock, leading many rural Mongolians to leave the countryside and relocate to the city.

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A: Major Political Parties in Mongolia are the Democratic Party and the Mongolian People’s Party. The Democratic Party tends to have an international and free market outlook, welcoming foreign direct investment. The Mongolian People ’s Party encourages “resource nationalism” and greater regulation and taxation of foreign companies.

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A: Excellent. The Mongolian political system provides for “separation of powers”: the Ikn Khural’s members select the Prime Minister to preside over the Cabinet, while the Mongolian people directly elect the President, who serves as Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He has veto power over new laws, which requires a super majority to override. He serves a maximum of two four year terms.

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A: Since 1990, Mongolia has been a multi-party democracy. It has a unicameral parliament (the Ikn Khural) with 76 members.

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