Strategically located between Russia and China, Mongolia provides rare opportunities for savvy business leaders and investors to start new businesses and expand existing ones. In recent years, Mongolia has suffered economic hardship, as can be seen from the stark drop in GDP growth over the past few years.
As a consequence, the country has embraced economic evolution. Political and business leaders have been forced to seek ways to fuel the economy, not only from mining which was the backbone of Mongolia’s economy for many years, but also from other sectors such as agriculture, renewable energy and tourism. At the same time, a global wave of technology and entrepreneurship have impacted the way Mongolians think and do business, spurring bold initiatives and a reaching out to the international community.
According to the World Bank, while livestock provides subsistence, income, and wealth for nearly half of Mongolia’s population, only 7 % of exports consist of raw livestock materials and primary processed products. This is in stark contrast with statistics for the mining sector, which only employs 5% of the workforce but has produced nearly 90% of Mongolia’s exports since 2000. This imbalance has spurred the Mongolian government to initiate policies and programs that support export-oriented enterprises outside the mining sector.
However, small and medium sized enterprises, which make up more than 80 percent of registered businesses in Mongolia, lack the knowledge, skills, capital and networks to effectively develop and distribute products that can compete in international markets. Therefore, foreign talent, expertise, capital and connections and investment, are well sought after in the country.
In order to decrease the economic vulnerability and meet the needs of the majority of Mongolian society who are dependent on non-mining, agrarian sectors, Mongolian government has been obliged to diversify Mongolia’s economy. In doing so, in addition to export-oriented support policies and programs, Mongolian government has introduced various programs and policies supporting import substitution.
In addition to macro-economic motivations, a strong societal need for food security has led to the opening of a large variety of food factories. Many of them have been formed in partnership with foreign companies and experts who have the sophisticated technical skills to complement their Mongolian partners’ local knowledge.
In this country of vast territory, patriotic people and thirst for advanced technologies and international connections, savvy investors and business people will discover many opportunities.