Mongolian Constitution has been in force for the last 25 years, dating from its adoption in 1992. It has been amended once in 1999 and again in 2001. It is the fourth Constitution of Mongolia since the first was adopted in 1924. Subsequent constitutions were put into place in 1940 and in 1960.
Mongolians today pay close attention to issues connected with the recent constitutional reform. A series of public consultations for Constitutional reform have been held in the Ulaanbaatar and in local aimags.
Several recommendations have been put forward for public discussion:
- maintaining the current balance of power between the legislature and the executive branches of government;
- strengthening the unity of the country;
- consolidating how local administration is structured;
- developing a professional, independent civil service;
- strengthening the judiciary to improve the legal structure; and
- creating a bicameral legislature that would include the State Great Hural and the State Congress. (Mongolians Discuss Constitutional Reform, supra.)
Taking the outcome of the public consultations into consideration, a consolidated proposal will be finalized and submitted to the parliament during the upcoming autumn session this year. However, the Democratic Party disagreed with this procedure and issued a statement demanding to hold a public referendum to hear voices of the people rather than organizing public consultations taking place in limited scope.
According to the Constitution, Constitutional amendments may be initiated by the President, members of the Parliament and the Government, as well as being proposed by the Constitutional Court to the parliament. A national referendum on constitutional amendment may be held where it is supported by at least two-thirds of the legislature. An amendment to the Constitution will have the same force as the Constitution when adopted by not less than three fourths of votes of all members of the parliament.
At the moment, the general public is encouraged to provide inputs to the proposed amendments. More information may be found at the following website: http://forum.parliament.mn/projects/171.