Foreign companies operating in Mongolia are sometime surprised regarding local laws on employment of minors. In Mongolia, employment of minors, is legally acceptable under limited circumstances and with high protections required in favor of the young employees.
There are a number of legislations regulating the child employment In Mongolia. There is the Labour Law, as well as The Law on Protection of Child Rights, and the relevant international conventions. Mongolia was one of the first countries to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990. Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) and Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) were also ratified by Mongolia.
In Mongolia, a person at the age of 16 is allowed to enter into an Employment Agreement. In addition, a person of age 14-15 years of age may be hired under the consent of the parents or guardians for the purpose of acquiring vocational training or work experience.
However, minors are allowed to be hired only in approved sectors. The Minister in charge of labour issues recently renewed the list of positions at which minors not allow to be employed, namely alcohol, tobacco related, plastics industry, construction, hotel, nightclub, bar, casino gambling, entertainment venue and generally jobs with hazardous labour conditions.
Horse racing, a traditional Mongolian sport, often sees children as young as five riding horses in the races. The children train the horses at even younger ages. Such activities have come under criticism by international child protection organizations for being a hazardous activity for these children, but due to the traditional nature of the sport, it is not likely that it will be restricted.
The employer of a minor is obligated to protect the health of minor employees by providing a medical examination twice a year. Furthermore, it is prohibited to require the minor employees to carry or lift load exceeded the permitted amount, and to work overtime, on public holidays or weekends. Violations may result in fines to the employer in addition to a requirement to compensate the young employee for with.