A: Mongolia’s extraordinarily harsh winters (‘Dzud’) are a major cause. There are three types of Dzud: Black, White and Ice. A ‘Black Dzud’ occurs after an exceptionally hot, dry summer, leaving low-lying grasses weak. This makes it difficult for herd animals to find fodder, and many starve. A ‘White Dzud’ from unusually heavy snowfall which prevents animals from reaching fodder. An ‘Ice Dzud’ is when freezing rain covers the ground, making grazing impossible. In 2009/2010 a Dzud killed an estimated 17% of all of Mongolia’s livestock, leading many rural Mongolians to leave the countryside and relocate to the city.